Get to Know Everything about Electrical Circuit

We often hear the word electrical circuit but have you ever wondered what electrical circuit is? Yes, it is related to electricity but after that what?  The word circuit tells us that it’s an enclosed route or path from one point to another. So we can conclude the electrical circuit is somewhat near to all this.

Definition of Electrical Circuit:

Before all this, we need to answer one more question. What do we exactly mean by electric current? Electric current is simply the flow of electrons and electric circuit is the enclosed path or route in which electric current can be passed through.

Components of Electric Circuit:

Electric circuits may be of different kind but all of them comprise of certain basic and common constituents. Integral components to look for in any electrical circuit are:

  • A power source
  • Protection Device
  • Working Device/Load
  • Control device
  • Ground

Apart from these, conductors are needed for the path of electrons to flow. A power source is the battery that generates voltage or electrical potential. A power source is also called the source of voltage. Working device or load i.e. the lamp or bulb helps use the electrical energy to perform the desired work. Switch is taken as the control device to control the flow of electrons. It helps switch on or off the flow. Fuse and circuit breakers are used in the form of Protection device in order to protect the circuit from overflow. Excessive flow of current results in a state called overload causing damage to conductors and load.

Types of Circuit

The circuit may be of two kinds:

  • Series
  • Parallel

Series Circuit: A series circuit is the simplest of all circuits. All the components of a circuit namely load (two or more), switch, fuse and battery are connected to each other in one single path.

Series Circuit

Series Circuit

The resistance across each device can be different but the current flow will be the same over the full path. The voltage about each of them will be different. Even though it is easier to attain this circuit, the disadvantage with series circuit is that if the path is broken, the current stops following no load will be able to perform.

Total Resistance in series connection= R1 + R2+ R3+………..+Rn

Parallel Circuit: More than one path of current flow takes place in a parallel circuit. The same amount of voltage reaches every path. If the load resistance is same in each branch, current will be same in every branch and similarly if the load resistance is different in different branches, current variation will take place accordingly.


Parallel Circuit

Parallel Circuit

Another kind of combination that can take place in the circuit is the Series- Parallel Circuit. It has certain components in parallel whereas the rest in the series. Loads are normally taken parallel while the power source, protection and control devices are connected in series.

If the series part is broken, the current flow stops but if a parallel flow breaks the current keeps flowing in the rest of the part.


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