Chemical Reactions Experiment

Chemical Reactions Experiments:

A chemical reaction is a chemical change which forms new substances and it is also known as chemical change. A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the change of one set of chemical substances to another. The chemical reactions include changes that only involve the positions of electrons in the forming and breaking of chemical bonds between atoms with no change to the nucleus and can often be described by a chemical equation. During a chemical reaction the physical structure of a substance will alter. Most reactions require heat, pressure, radiation or the presence of accelerators.

The substance involved in a chemical reaction is called reactants or reagents. Chemical reactions are usually considered by a chemical change and they give up one or more products which usually have properties different from the reactants.

High School science project ideas

High School science project ideas

Chemical reactions are described with chemical equations which graphically present the starting materials, end products and sometimes middle products and reaction conditions. The general concept of a chemical reaction has been complete to non-chemical reactions between entities smaller than atoms including nuclear reactions, radioactive decays and reactions between simple particles as described by quantum field theory.

Chemical reactions are part of our daily lives example cooking in the kitchen to driving a car. This list is expected at some of the more interesting and amazing reactions that most of us have not seen or experienced.

Examples of Chemical Reactions are:

The chemical reaction H2 (g) + ½ O2 (g) ? H2O (l) describes the structure of water from its elements.

Students will learn about the scientific method and will discover chemical reactions. This activity allows students to use the scientific method to observe and identify a set of safe substances.


  1. Non-Cook Smoke Bomb Recipe

The classic smoke bomb is very easy to make. There is no possibility of accidentally setting off your smoke alarm or igniting the mixture during preparation. There is safer way to make a smoke bomb. It uses the same ingredients and produces a similar amount of smoke but it takes a bit longer to make.

Ingredients how to make the safer smoke bomb:

  • potassium nitrate
  • sugar
  • water
  • fuse
  • paper or plastic cups
  • plastic spoon
  • waxed paper

Make the Smoke Bombs

  • In a paper or plastic cup mix 3 parts of potassium nitrate with 2 parts sugar (like 3 tablespoons potassium nitrate and 2 tablespoons sugar).
  • Using your plastic spoon, stir in just enough water to make a solid paste. Continue stirring until the ingredients are evenly mixed.
  • Set lumps of the mixture (1 tablespoon) onto the waxed paper. Insert a combine into each piece.
  • Allow the smoke bombs to set up for 1-2 days. The drying time will depend on temperature and humidity. Warmer and drier is faster; cooler and limitation will take longer.
  •  Keep the smoke bombs away from too much heat or flame. The smoke bombs will be like clay when they are ready, not hard and solid.
  • Set a completed smoke bomb outside on a flameproof surface and light it.

2. Natural Toothpaste        

It’s easy to make your own natural toothpaste. These instructions are especially useful if you are trying to reduce discovery to fluoride such as for children or people who already have fluoridise. This toothpaste is sugar-free and non-toxic.

What You Need

  • sodium bicarbonate
  • salt
  • water
  • glycerine
  • peppermint oil (optional
  • Mix three parts baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) with one part table salt (sodium chloride).
  • Add three teaspoons of glycerine for every 1/4 cup of dry mixture.
  • Add enough water to make a thick paste. If required add a few drops of peppermint oil may be added to improve the taste.
  • Apply and use just as you would any other toothpaste. Store new toothpaste at room temperature in a covered container.

3. Homemade Hand Sanitizer

Some trade hand sanitizers contain ingredients as uncanny as the germs they protect you from so why not make your own hand sanitizer from ingredients you select. This is an excellent project for kids as well as adults because it includes a discussion about hygiene and disinfection. You’ll save money, protect yourself from germs, and can adjust the odour of the hand sanitizer so it doesn’t smell medical.

  • 2/3 cup 99% rubbing alcohol (isopropyl alcohol) or ethanol
  • 1/3 cup aloe Vera gel
  • 8-10 drops essential oil, optional (such as lavender, vanilla, peppermint, grapefruit)
  • bowl and spoon
  • funnel
  • recycled liquid soap or hand sanitizer bottle

Make Hand Sanitizer

Simply mix the ingredients together and then use the funnel to pour them into the bottle. Rotate the pump back onto the bottle and you’re ready to go. The active ingredient in this hand sanitizer recipe is the alcohol which needs to include at least 60% of the product in order to be an effective sanitizer.

Essential Oils in Hand Sanitizer

Thyme and clove oil have antimicrobial properties for adding smell to your hand sanitizer, the essential oil you choose may also help protect you against germs.  If you are using antimicrobial oils only use a drop or two since these oils be likely to be very powerful and might irritate your skin. Other oils such as lavender or chamomile may help pacify your skin.

4. Magnesium and Dry Ice Reaction

Magnesium ignites easily and burns very brightly. In this experiment you can see magnesium ignited in a shell of dry ice – frozen carbon dioxide. Magnesium is able to burn in carbon dioxide and nitrogen. Because of its brilliant light, it was used in early photographic flashes and it is still used in marine flares and fireworks.

5. Steel Wool & Vinegar Reaction

Soak steel wool in vinegar and watch what happens as the iron in the steel begins to react with the oxygen around it. This fun science experiment for kids is great for learning about chemical reactions.

What you’ll need:

  • Steel Wool
  • Vinegar
  • Two beakers
  • Paper or a lid (something to cover the beaker to keep the heat in)
  • Thermometer

Instructions:

  • Place the steel wool in a beaker.
  • Pour vinegar on to the steel wool and allow it to soak in the vinegar for around one minute.
  • Remove the steel wool and drain any overload vinegar.
  • Wrap the steel wool around the base of the thermometer and place them both in the second beaker. Continue Reading »

Experiments in Biology

Meaning of Biology

Biology is a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms including their arrangement, function, growth, development, distribution, and classification. Biology has many sub disciplines joined by five so-called axioms of modern biology. It includes botany and zoology and all their subdivisions. Hands testing are one of the best ways to know biology.

The biology experiments are designed for you to do at home or school using simple equipment. Biology experiments are popular with people of all ages. Biology is an interesting subject. You can start experiments with plants, flowers or even with the observation of insects, soil and food samples etc. Biology activities and experiments are educational, exciting, and often times great fun.

Experimentation is one of the best ways to learn about biology. By taking a hands-on learning approach, students can get a real sense of biology concepts. Here are some good ideas for lab activities and biology experiments are as follows.

Experiment: 1 Colour Flowers

Flowers

Flowers

it is a very simple and fun biology experiment which will teach children about water absorption systems in plants.

The things required for the experiments are

  • A cup of water
  • Food colour
  • A flower with a whole stalk
  • Empty clean flask

Procedure:

  1. Mix the food colour in the water. Make sure there are no lumps and that the colour dissolves completely in the water.
  2. Now pour the coloured water into the container. Make sure that the container is clean and doesn’t have any impurities on its surface.
  3. Now take the flowers and place them in the container so that half of the stalk is flooded under water.
  4. Place the container on a window shelf or any other surface that gets enough sunlight.
  5. Tell the children to observe the colour of the flowers over a period of time.

Experiment Results:

Plants need water for food this simple experiment shows how water is engaged by the stalk, and distributed throughout the plant to its leaves and flower.

Experiment: 2 Observing Bacteria

it is a simple and easy experiment to introduce the children to some variety of bacteria.

Things Required:

  • A compound microscope
  • Yogurt
  • Clean empty cup
  • Water
  • Unused ink dropper
  • Microscope slide
  • Cover slip/glass

Procedure:

  1. Take a small quantity of yogurt (half a teaspoon) and drop this into the cup, adding two teaspoons of water to it.
  2. Mix the yogurt and water with a spoon, so as to create a consistent delay.
  3. Using the ink dropper, place a drop of this yogurt suspension on the clean, clean microscope slide. Make sure you don’t take more than a drop.
  4. Place the cover slip on the drop of suspension. Now the slide is ready to be observed under the microscope.
  5. Now simply allow the children to observe the sample under the microscope.

Experiment Results:

Usually the commercially manufactured yogurt includes Streptococcus thermopiles and Lactobacillus bulgaricus. You can tell the children about these bacteria which are in fact helpful to our systems and not harmful like other kinds of bacteria.

Experiment: 3 Homemade Extraction of Your Own DNA

Ingredients:

  • transparent glass
  • salt
  • liquid soap
  • grapefruit juice
  • Alcohol (e.g. rum, vodka, etc.)

Procedure:

The first step is of spitting on the glass and adding a pinch of salt to it. Then add some liquid soap, juice from a grapefruit, and some drops of alcohol. Once you have everything on the glass, stir the mixture and now you can see the result .The white mucous filaments you observe on top of the mixture are your DNA

Experiment: 4 Magic Balloons

To display how the gases from yeast can be used to blow up a balloon.

Required materials

  • 1 Packet of dried yeast
  • Teaspoon
  • Warm water
  • Sugar
  • Clear plastic bottle (such as a small empty soda bottle)
  • 1 or more balloons
  • Large bowl (optional)

Experiment Time

Approximately 15 minutes

Procedure

  1. Pour the packet of dried yeast into the clear plastic bottle.
  2. Add some warm water to the bottle so that the bottle is about 1/4 filled.
  3. Add a teaspoon of sugar to the bottle and swirl the bottle around it.
  4. Place the balloon over the mouth of the bottle so that it’s fully covered and there are no leaks.
  5. Place the bottle with the balloon on it on a warm shelf or place it into a large bowl of warm water.

Note

Sugar, along with vinegar, produces the best conditions for yeast to ferment.

Result

After placing the bottle in the warm bowl of water or on the warm window sill, the balloon will magically blow itself up. By adding sugar and heat to the yeast, the yeast (which is a plant) grows and produces a gas called carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide trapped inside the bottle rises and fills up the balloon.

Experiment: 5 Barney Bananas

Barney Banana is a fun experiment to show how to slice a banana from inside, before peeling it.

Required materials

  • Long stitching needle
  • Small banana

Experiment Time

Less than 5 minutes

 Procedure

  1. Carefully push the needle into one of the edges of the banana. Push it all the way in so it reaches the other side of the banana but do not push through the skin of the other side. You’ll feel a change in resistance once you hit the other side, so do this step slowly.
  2. Move the needle up and down on its turn point. This will cut and slice the banana inside.
  3. Move to another point and repeat the process. As you move to the next section keep about a finger’s space between each hole. Make sure you only put the needle in one side of the banana so you can cover the holes from friends or family.
  4. Now peel the banana for your friends or family. They’ll be shocked to find a perfectly sliced banana from the inside.

Experiment: 6 Double Colour Flower

The materials required for experiment

  • White flower with branch and leaves
  • 2 Glass tumblers
  • Blade to cut the flower stem
  • Red dye (water soluble)
  • Water

Experiment Time

Around 10 minutes to set up the equipment and 5-12 hours to see out the observations.

Experiment Procedure

  1. Fill two glasses with water.
  2. Mix red colour in one of the tumblers.
  3. Tear the stem of the white flower.
  4. Place one half of the stem in one glass and the other in the glass containing the dyed liquid.
  5. Leave the set-up undamaged for a few hours.

Note

After a few hours one half of the flower changes its original colour.

Observation

The liquid rises through narrow columns that produce the required tube force. The tube action carries water from the beakers to the petals of the white flower causing it to change colour. It is the same phenomenon that causes water to move up plants and trees through the roots, stem, and then into the flowers and leaves.

Chemical Equilibrium Experiment

Definition of Chemical Equilibrium

Chemical equilibrium applies to reactions that can occur in both directions. In a reaction such as:

CH4 (g) + H2O (g) <–> CO (g) + 3H2 (g)

Teacher

Teacher

The reaction can happen both ways. After some of the products are created the products begin to react to form the reactants. At the beginning of the reaction the rate that the reactants are changing into the products is higher than the rate that the products are changing into the reactants.

The net change is a higher number of products. Even though the reactants are regularly forming products and vice-versa the amount of reactants and products does become stable. When the net change of the products and reactants is zero the reaction has reached balance. The equilibrium is a dynamic equilibrium. The definition for a dynamic equilibrium is when the amount of products and reactants are constant.

The objective of the experiment is to show how experimental conditions involve chemical equilibrium. The effect of the reactant concentration (CH3COO-) and the common ion addition (H+) on the reaction which is given below:

3 Fe3+ + 6 CH3COO- + 2 H2O [Fe3 (OH) 2(CH3COO) 6] + + 2 H+

A solution of the complex [Fe3 (OH) 2(CH3COO) 6] + is an intense orange. A Spectra spectrometer can be used to appraise the give up of the reaction. The higher is the absorption of the coloured complex, the higher is the absorbance of the examined solution.

The equilibrium condition is described in terms of the rate of the forward and reverse reactions for the reaction. The equilibrium constant (KP and KC) and the Law of Mass Action are introduced.

In a chemical reaction, chemical equilibrium is the state in which both reactants and products are present at concentrations which have no further inclination to change with time.  This state marks when the forward reaction proceeds at the same rate as the reverse reaction. The reaction rates of the forward and backward reactions are generally not zero but equal.  There are no net changes in the concentrations of the reactant(s) and product(s). Such a state is known as dynamic equilibrium.

Chemical equilibrium is the condition which occurs when the concentration of reactants and products participating in a chemical reaction exhibit no net change over time. Chemical equilibrium may also be called a steady state reaction. The quantities of reactants and products have achieved a constant ratio, but they are almost never equal. There may be much more product or much more reactant.

Equipment and Material 

  • Test tubes Glass-stirring rod Berol pipit
  • Syringe with cap Beakers Hot plate
  • Test tube holder hot mitts

Experiment Time taken 60 – 90 min

Chemicals taken for experiment

  • Bromothymol Blue phenolphthalein 0.1 M NaOH 0.1 M HCl

M Zn(NO3)2 15ml Club soda 6 M NaOH 6 M HCl

  • NH4Cl saturated solution Crystals NH4Cl Deionise water

Objective

This experiment is to determine the effects of disturbances on chemical systems at equilibrium. The response of the chemical systems will be necessary in terms to Lech atelier’s principle.

Discussion

Chemical equilibrium plays an important role in our lives. Many of the chemical changes involved in the metabolism of food are equilibrium-forced processes. A number of important industrial processes involve chemical reactions that do not proceed to conclusion due to back reaction. The reversibility of a reaction competes with the forward progression of a reaction. There is a point in a reaction when the products will back react to form reactant.

The extent of the reaction is 20% or 80% can be determined by measuring the concentration of each component in solution when the amount of product and reactant has stopped changing. The extent of the reaction is a function of temperature concentration ad degree of organization that is monitored by a constant value called the equilibrium constant.